The Independent Army of the Independent Planets operated until the Battle of Serenity Valley as a guerrilla force aimed at tying down and harassing enemy forces rather than meeting them in open battle. An Independent Army force could expect to be outnumbered in any given battle it fought against the Union of Allied Planets Army, and as such its tactics were geared towards hit and run rather than a conventional battle. In the later stages of the Unification War, the independents resulted in using fortress-like tactics.
Compared to the forces of the Alliance Military, the Independent ground forces were woefully outmatched in numbers of troops, vehicles, warships, and material.
Due to the scarce technology and resources, Independent soldiers wore a brown leather trench coat and red scarves around their neck together with a helmet for head protection.